英語寫作中如何清晰地表達自己的觀點?

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  As you've probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.你可能已經注意到,有關文章寫作的任務可能出現在任何課堂上。An essay is a literary composition that expresses a certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support).文章是表達某種思想、聲明、概念,並用句子連接起來的文字材料。文章需要遵循一定的邏輯模式,包括引言(起初聲明),正文(文章支撐),和結論。Any time you have to write a essay, you should begin with a frame based on the parts below.Luckily, you can learn to craft a great essay if you can follow the standard pattern and write in a clear and organized manner.當你需要寫一篇文章時,你應該以如下所示的文本框架開始寫作。幸運的是,如果你可以遵循這種標準模式並且用一種清晰有組織的方式寫作,你可以學到如何完成一篇高質量的文章。

  Introduction引言

  The introduction is the first paragraph in your essay, and it should accomplish a few specific goals.引言是文章的第一段,引言中應該完成一些具體的目標。

  1. Capture the reader's interest.引起讀者的興趣

  It's a good idea to start your essay with a really interesting statement, in order to pique the reader's interest.用一種有趣的敘述來開始你的文章是一個好想法,這樣可以引起讀者的興趣。Avoid starting out with a boring line like this:"In this essay I will explain why Rosa Parks was an important figure."Instead, try something with a bit of a surprise factor, like this statement:"A Michigan museum recently paid 2,000 for an old, dilapidated bus from Montgomery, Alabama."The second sentence sounds much more interesting, doesn't it? It would encourage most people to keep on reading.避免用一些無趣平淡的句子開頭,例如:“這篇文章我將論述為什麼羅莎·帕克斯是一位偉大的人物”。取而代之,嚐試一些令人驚訝的方式,比如:“密歇根博物館最近以492000美元的價格收購了一輛蒙哥馬利,阿拉巴馬州的老舊公共汽車”。第二個句子聽起來非常有趣,不是嗎?它可以激勵讀者繼續閱讀。

  2. Introduce the topic.引出話題

  The next few sentences should explain your first statement, and prepare the reader for your thesis statement."The old yellow bus was reported to be the very one that sparked the civil rights movement, when a young woman named Rosa Parks..."接下來的幾個句子應該闡釋你的第一個論述,為讀者閱讀主題句做鋪墊。“正是這輛黃色的公共汽車引發了全民運動,當時一名年輕的女性名為羅莎·帕克斯……”

  3. Make a claim or express your opinion in a thesis sentence.提出主題或者在主題句中表達自己的觀點

  At the end of your introductory paragraph, you will place a powerful thesis statement. Your thesis sentence should provide your specific assertion and convey a clear point of view.在引言的結尾部分,你應該提出強有力的主題陳述。主題句應該提出具體的推斷和明確的觀點、"In refusing to surrender her seat to a white man, Rosa Parks inspired a courageous freedom movement that lives on,"“在拒絕讓出自己的座位給一個白人時,羅莎·帕克斯激發了一場勇敢的自由運動。”

  Your instructor will be looking for the specific elements above when reviewing your introductory paragraph, so be sure to review your first paragraph to make sure it meets these three goals.

  你的指導老師在檢閱你文章的引言內容時,將會尋找這些具體的元素。因此,回顧一遍第一段的內容確保滿足了上述三點條件。

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  Body正文

  The body of the essay will include three paragraphs (if this is a five-paragraph essay), each limited to one main idea that supports your thesis. You should state your idea, then back it up with two or three sentences of evidence or examples.這文一般包括三個段落(適用於五段式文章),每一段都具體論述一條觀點用於支撐主題。你應該陳述你的觀點,之後用兩三句話或舉例來支撐。Example of a main idea:主題句舉例:"It took incredible courage for an African American woman to make such a bold stance in 1955 Alabama."“在1955年阿拉巴馬州,對於一個非裔美國婦女,做出這樣一個大膽的行為需要很大的勇氣”。Offer evidence to support this statement:

  為主題句提供論據:

  "This act took place in an era when African Americans could be arrested and face severe retribution for committing the most trivial acts of defiance."“在當時的情況下,非洲裔美國人可能會因為最微不足道的挑釁行為而被逮捕甚至可能面臨嚴重的懲罰”。Include a few more supporting statements with further evidence, then use transition words to lead to the paragraph that follows. All of your body paragraphs should follow the pattern of statement, supporting ideas, and transition statement.使用更多論據作為支撐語句,之後使用過渡詞引出後面的段落。所有你的正文將會遵循一定的模式:論點、論據和過渡句、Words to use as you transition from one paragraph to another:常使用的段落過渡詞:

  Moreover 此外

  in fact 實際上

  on the whole 整體而言

  Furthermore 此外

  as a result 作為結果

  simply put 簡而言之

  for this reason 由於這種原因

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  Similarly 相似地

  Likewise 同樣的

  it follows that 由此斷定

  Naturally 自然而然地

  by comparison 通過對比

  Surely 不置可否地

  Yet 然而

  Conclusion結論

  The final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim (from your thesis sentence). It should point out your main points, but should not repeat specific examples.最後一段話將總結你的主要觀點並且強調你要求(也來源於你的主題句)。這將指出你的主要論點,但不要重複寫具體的例子。Once you complete the first draft of your essay, it's a good idea to re-visit the thesis statement in your first paragraph. Read your essay to see if it flows well.一旦你完成文章的草稿。再次閱讀文章第一段的的主題句是一個不錯的選擇。閱讀你的文章,看一看是否很好地契合主題。You might find that the supporting paragraphs are strong, but they don't address the exact focus of your thesis. Simply re-write your thesis sentence to fit your body and summary more exactly.你可能發現支撐段落內容較多,但是它們並沒有很好地契合主題。重寫你的主題句或者修改你的正文和總結使他們更為精確。By doing this, you will ensure that every sentence in your essay supports, proves, or reflects your thesis.這樣做,你可以確保文章的每一句話都支撐,論證或表現出文章主題。

  聲明:本雙語文章的中文翻譯系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文翻譯僅代表譯者個人觀點,僅供參考。如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。

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